Diaskintest – a skin test to determine the presence of tuberculosis, characteristics of the development of the pathological process. With the help of the test, the active form of the disease of all organs, asymptomatic carriage, in which the patient is a carrier of mycobacteria, is established.
Among the advantages of the test are:
High level of security;
Does not cause a reaction in healthy and vaccinated people;
Highly sensitive. All sick and infected individuals have an accurate positive result;
Allows you to determine the activity of the disease, control the effectiveness of treatment;
Shows a negative result, after proper therapy.
Why you need to get DST vaccinated
The causative agent of the disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It develops against the background of a decrease in immunity, malnutrition, frequent hypothermia, malnutrition, HIV infection, drug addiction, nervous hypothermia. It is transmitted in several ways:
Airborne: through communication, sneezing, contact with the patient;
Household: when using dishes, things, kissing, etc.;
Through contact with the carrier;
Nutritional: eating affected food;
Intrauterine: from mother to child.
In the acute form of tuberculosis, there is a prolonged and wet cough with sputum; hyperthermia. The patient dramatically loses weight, complains of fatigue, general deterioration of health. Lost performance. The cough is wet, pronounced. It occurs in the form of frequent attacks, especially in the morning. Often the disease at the initial stage is mistakenly confused with “smoker’s cough”, symptoms of chronic bronchitis. According to statistics in the CIS countries, approximately 90% of people are carriers of Koch’s wand. At the same time, 5% get sick.
The development of tuberculosis depends on the level of immunity. Therefore, the main method of disease prevention is maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Children are necessarily vaccinated, regular samples and tests are carried out, with the help of which it is possible to establish in the early stages. Diaskintest is a solution that helps to detect the disease at an early stage.
Alexander Vyacheslavovich Averyanov
Pulmonologist, doctor of medical sciences, professor, doctor of the highest qualification category
According to statistics, 90% of the population are carriers of Koch’s bacillus, the causative agent of tuberculosis. At the same time, the incidence is recorded only in 5%. The disease develops against the background of immunodeficiency, so it is important to lead a healthy lifestyle and engage in prevention.
Diaskintest allows you to diagnose tuberculosis. The method differs from the classical Mantoux in its accuracy. The effectiveness of Diaskintest is 90%. For comparison: Mantoux accuracy ranges from 50 to 70%. The Yusupov hospital uses Diaskintest to diagnose tuberculosis. The method is effective and with a preventive purpose. Results are evaluated after 72 hours. Diaskintest is well tolerated, rarely causes allergic reactions. Even if individual intolerance to the test component occurs, adverse reactions disappear after 2-3 days.
Diaskintest has proven itself on the positive side of most domestic doctors. Diagnostics is being actively implemented in medical institutions. High efficiency allows you to prescribe the correct treatment. This is important because tuberculosis is characterized by a progressive course and high mortality without adequate therapy.
The principle of operation of the analysis
Diaskintest is used for setting an intradermal test in all age groups in order to:
Definitions of a phase of development of tuberculosis;
Identification of persons at high risk of developing an open form;
Diagnosis of the form of the disease;
Evaluation of treatment activity, etc.
A test through the Diaskintest test is carried out in the following cases:
Persons who received a referral to an anti-tuberculosis institution for examination for the development of the tuberculosis process;
Persons belonging to the high-risk group, taking into account epidemiological, medical and social factors.
One dose of the drug contains the recombinant CFP10-ESAT6 protein – 0.2 µg, sodium phosphate. Available synthetic antigens, after being injected under the skin, cause an allergic reaction. This form of manifestation indicates the presence of an active phase, in which tuberculosis develops or infection occurs without the formation of pathology. Additional components: sodium chloride, potassium phosphate, polysorbate 80, phenol.
Difference from Mantou?
The main difference between Diaskintest and the classic Mantoux is the accuracy of the data. When conducting Mantoux, the accuracy of the result ranges from 50 to 70%. Tests have shown that the intradermal test has a data accuracy of 90%.
In addition, each of the tests has a different composition, which includes active substances that are different from each other. In Mantoux, the main active element is tuberculin, which is contained in tuberculosis bacteria. However, this protein is present not only in tuberculosis, but also in microorganisms similar to the disease. Diaskintest contains protein as the main element, which is present only in this disease. Therefore, the reaction to the analysis is different. With a positive Mantoux test, there is a high risk of bacteria that are not the causative agents of tuberculosis.
Upon receipt of a positive result after carrying out Diaskintest , then you can be completely sure of infection with tuberculosis, which means that the correct treatment should be applied in time.
Thus, the method shows more accurate results in detecting a dangerous disease, apply treatment to avoid serious complications. survey practice shows that Diaskintest is effective at any, even the earliest stages of tuberculosis.
Test indications and contraindications
It is used to conduct an intradermal test of persons of different age groups, as well as to assess the activity of the infectious process. With the help of the test, it is possible to identify individuals belonging to a group with a high risk of infection, receiving an active phase.
It is used for the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis, as well as in the fight against infectious and post-vaccination allergies. Often prescribed by doctors to confirm the quality of treatment.
Diaskintest does not cause a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, which often occurs with BCG vaccination.
Along with the indication, there are a number of cases in which it is not recommended to conduct a test for the detection of tuberculosis. These include:
The presence of acute and chronic infectious diseases. The exception is the suspicion of tuberculosis;
Exacerbation of somatic diseases;
Spread of a skin infection;
In children’s institutions, where quarantine is often established, the test is carried out after it is lifted. Sometimes, when applied, a number of side effects occur, which manifests itself in the form of malaise, headache, fever. It is forbidden to use together with preventive vaccinations. It is carried out after their holding, at the end of the 30-day period.
How is DST done?
Diaskintest vaccination is carried out only on the prescription of a doctor for children and adults only by a medical worker with permission to carry out intradermal tests.
Diaskintest is administered strictly intradermally . For carrying out, special tuberculin syringes, thin short needles are used. Before using the drug, the date and expiration date must be checked. After opening, the vial with the drug is stored for no more than two hours.
How many Diaskintest is done once a year? Healthy children aged 8 to 18 are prescribed once a year during a mass examination. In the absence of BCG vaccination, it must be done twice a year. For preventive purposes, adults are prescribed once every 12 months.
In the presence of diabetes mellitus, lung diseases, peptic ulcer of the stomach, lungs and kidneys, adults and children are administered twice a year with a frequency of six months. It is allowed to test with a positive Mantoux test.
In all other cases, the conduct is prescribed only by prescription. The following rules apply:
Upon receipt of a negative result, re-conduction is established after two months;
If there is a positive response, it is introduced at any time after any period of time as needed;
With vaccination or transfer of infectious diseases – not earlier than in a month.
Evaluation of the results of Diaskintest
After Diaskintest, the evaluation of the test results is carried out by a nurse 72 hours after the introduction of the vaccine. The measurement of the transverse size of hyperemia and infiltration with a ruler in millimeters is taken into account. Hyperemia is taken into account only in the absence of infiltration.
The response to the sample is perceived in the following cases:
Negative Diaskintest score. The complete absence of infiltration and hyperemia, as well as with a ” prick reaction” up to 2 mm;
Doubtful. Found hyperemia without infiltrate;
positive. An infiltrate of any size was found.
The revealed positive reaction differs in the degree of manifestation:
Weak. The size is up to 5 mm;
Moderate. Infiltrate no more than 14 mm;
Hyperergic Diaskintest results. There is a volume of more than 15 mm. Also, when detecting vesiculonecrotic changes, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis.
With a negative result, there is practically no swelling. A trace from the injection, a hematoma, may be noticeable. The presence of a bruise makes it difficult to assess, as there is little to no redness visible. In disputable cases, a second test is scheduled after two months.
If a positive Diaskintest interpretation is found, an examination for the presence of tuberculosis is prescribed. Accompanied by a strong inflammatory reaction. Allergies and other reactions to the administration of the drug are observed immediately and disappear after 48-72 hours.
Diaskintest interpretation of the results may be negative in a patient with tuberculosis due to immunopathological disorders in the body caused by tuberculous disorders of the body. Also in the early stages of the tuberculous process, in the presence of concomitant diseases, accompanied by an immunodeficiency state.
Causes of a dubious and hyperergic reaction to the test
The response to the test can be positive hyperergic and questionable. Such processes indicate the absence of the disease and its pathogens in the body. The explanation for this is as follows:
The reaction to Diaskintest arose due to an infection in the body that did not cause the corresponding symptoms. Other pathologies that contribute to the reaction of the body. Sometimes there are symptoms due to a recent infection
Venue infection. This is especially true for children
The presence of an allergy with an inadequate reaction to the allergen
Somatic and autoimmune diseases
There may be other reasons for this reaction to the test. People who are predisposed to allergies are often given antihistamines before the test.
In order to avoid a false positive reaction, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the measures for contraindications. Adults are prohibited from drinking alcohol before and after the introduction of Diaskintest . The decomposition products of ethyl alcohol with the reaction of the drug can cause redness of the injection site, which will be taken as a positive reaction for Diaskintest .
It is not recommended to wet the test site, place public baths, saunas, the beach or swimming pool. Such measures may provoke a backlash.
The image shows that with a comparative result, an infiltrate size of 2-4 mm is observed.
The photo provided indicates a negative result. With it, a trace of the introduction may remain, the infiltrate is completely absent.
Reviews about the analysis
Since the active use of Diaskintest, reviews have earned positive reviews among doctors throughout the CIS. The drug allows you to get the correct result in 90% of cases. With its help, it is possible to determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, the quality of treatment, etc. With its help, it is easy to determine the disease in adults and children.
Diaskintest rarely receives negative reviews. The reason for their appearance in the adverse reactions of the body to the injected injection.