EEG video monitoring day and night: in what cases it is prescribed

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EEG video monitoring day and night: in what cases it is prescribed

Night EEG monitoring is prescribed by a neurologist in cases when seizures occur only at night or the patient cannot fall asleep during the day. Carrying out a diagnostic study is relevant if differential diagnosis of an epileptic convulsive state is required, which cannot be determined by another method.  

Application of the electroencelograph in neurology

The electroencephalograph is used in medicine to diagnose various neurological pathologies. Monitoring is carried out by observing the reaction of the cerebral cortex to external and internal stimuli. The nervous system is being examined. With the help of this device, it is determined how correctly the brain is working, and whether there are any disorders.

If the electroencephalograph detects violations, pathology is detected, after which an accurate diagnosis is established. Monitoring determines the form of epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and degenerative changes in the brain. With the help of such a diagnosis, treatment is monitored. Doctors determine if there are changes in the patient’s body after treatment.

EEG monitoring is prescribed to a patient who has the following symptoms or complaints:

  • disturbed sleep (constant sleepiness throughout the day or insomnia, nightmares);
  • fainting;
  • regular headaches;
  • tinnitus, blocked ears;
  • epileptic seizures;
  • emotional stress, mood swings.

In addition, EEG is performed in the following cases:

  • determination of the form of epilepsy;
  • differential diagnosis of paroxysmal conditions (the presence of non-epileptic seizures, including: nervous tic, psychogenic attack, panic attack, night fear, “sleepwalking”).

The type of epileptic seizures, which are focal and generalized, is specified. An examination of the patient may be ordered before surgery. Monitoring is used to control the effectiveness of antiepileptic therapy. Often, the question of canceling or replacing the intake of certain antiepileptic drugs is decided .

What video EEG monitoring will be prescribed – night or day?

The difference between the studies lies in the duration of the study and in the time of day at which the video EEG monitoring is carried out . Below is detailed information about the diagnostic study, the advantages and disadvantages. 

Both night and day methods clarify the nature of the seizures, the form of epilepsy. Differential diagnosis of epilepsy determines other seizures of a non-epileptic nature, including: metabolic disorders, psychogenic and cardiogenic seizures, disturbed behavior during sleep. The study determines the risk of developing recurrent convulsive conditions.

According to epileptologists, the increased duration of the study increases the information content. The decision on the duration of the diagnosis is made by the attending physician.

Routine EEG

Primary diagnosis reveals paroxysmal disorders in the brain. In this case, various stress tests are carried out, including photostimulation and hyperventilation. Photostimulation allows you to visualize the reaction of the brain and nervous system to flashing LEDs. Hyperventilation, in turn, checks the body for the formed respiration of a specific frequency.

The advantages of the study include a short duration. The minimum monitoring time is 30 minutes, which is suitable for examining young children or busy people. A significant disadvantage of a routine EEG is the minimum information content. This diagnostic method is not enough to establish a diagnosis and determine the etiology of the disease.

EEG monitoring with deprivation (lack of sleep)

  • Video-EEG monitoring, in addition to recording wakefulness, must include recording during sleep. This is usually straightforward for night exploration. 
  • For a daytime study, preparation is required – the so-called. sleep deprivation: on the eve of the study, it is desirable to significantly reduce the duration of night sleep (go to bed at least 2 hours later than the usual bedtime and get up in the morning also earlier than the usual wake-up time by at least 2 hours).
  • It is very important not to let the child doze off in the transport on the way to the study.

Long-term EEG monitoring with registration of daytime sleep

The survey is carried out on an outpatient basis. The patient is in the clinic from 5 to 12 hours. The duration of the study depends on the indications and prescriptions of the attending physician. The visualized results of the study are quite informative, which is one of the significant advantages. The doctor detects brain disorders and other pathologies. The downside is that not all people can fall asleep during the daytime. The cost of the research depends on the duration.

EEG monitoring of night sleep

Most patients are shown to carry out precisely night monitoring. The study gives the most informative results, shows the state of the brain during wakefulness, in a state of nap and night sleep, at the moment of awakening. The duration of the study varies from 10 hours or more. EEG monitoring is carried out under stationary conditions.

The advantage of the research is called informational content, which allows the doctor to make an accurate conclusion. During the examination, even specific abnormalities are recognized that cannot be detected during a routine EEG.

Daily EEG monitoring

Daily examination is called Holter EEG monitoring. The study is carried out in stationary conditions. The duration is 18 hours or more. A cap with electrodes is put on the patient’s head. The wires are connected to a holter receiver , which is attached to the patient’s body. The study is carried out in a state of normal life. The state of the patient is determined in a state when natural stimuli are exposed. Such violations occur with a person in everyday life.

Multi-day EEG monitoring

Diagnostic examination of the cerebral cortex is carried out using the ” Holter EEG” device , which records the study on a memory card. Registration saves data that captures the activity of the brain at different times. Additionally, EMG and ECG sensors are installed. The patient’s snoring, breathing, chest condition are recorded. Video is being recorded. The patient’s physical condition and EEG indicators are compared.

Full monitoring of the state of the brain is being carried out. It is possible to conduct a study at home, and not in a hospital, which excludes the psychogenic factor. According to medical professionals, preference is given to night or daily monitoring. The diagnostic technique depends on the patient’s condition and the presence of complaints. If fainting is observed during the daytime, daily monitoring is carried out.

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