Generalized epilepsy: seizures, symptoms
Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases in the field of neurology. Depending on the affected foci of the brain and the specifics of the seizures, it can have different names. Generalized epilepsy is one of the most common manifestations of the disease. It is characterized by seizures, but no brain damage occurs.
The main classification and signs of generalized epilepsy
Generalized epilepsy can be characterized by various manifestations. Among the most common are absences, myolconia and tonic-clonic seizures. In this case, forms can arise at different times.
So absences are characterized by the appearance of short-term seizures, which are accompanied by loss of consciousness. Myoclonus, on the other hand, is characterized by severe short-term seizures that manifest in one or more muscle groups.
Tonic-clonic seizures are the third form of manifestation of generalized epilepsy. They occur with variable but continuous contractions of different muscle groups. At the very beginning of the attack, the patient loses consciousness, after which a sharp muscle contraction occurs. The initial time between seizures is 30 seconds. After that, the intervals begin to increase. Ultimately, the attack stops.
Symptoms of the manifestation of generalized epilepsy and its features
In most cases, generalized epilepsy occurs during childhood. Slightly less often, it can manifest itself in an adult state. The onset of an attack can be triggered by various reasons. For example, early awakening, TV, excess ventilation, etc. Most of the attacks occur in the morning.
Generalized epilepsy is quite difficult to identify with the help of diagnostics, since neurological changes in the cerebral cortex are not characteristic of it. Symptoms are diffuse.
This form of the disease is characterized by some attention disorders, behavioral changes that manifest themselves in the form of hyperactivity. In most cases, generalized epilepsy responds well to treatment. The only drawback is that if preventive treatment is canceled, relapses of the disease are possible.
Treatment methods for generalized epilepsy
After conducting diagnostic studies and clarifying the diagnosis, patients are prescribed drug treatment. The main task comes down to reducing the frequency of attacks or their complete disappearance. The main difficulty lies in the fact that drug treatment must be carried out throughout life. Otherwise, attacks may recur.
As the main drug, patients are prescribed sodium volprate or, as it is called in another way, valproic acid. The effectiveness of treatment when using one drug is up to 75%. True, when prescribing it, it is necessary to take into account both side effects and contraindications. For this reason, ilevetiracetam, clonazepam, lamotrigine, or ethosuximide have been prescribed as effective treatments. In addition to one drug, additional medications are administered in the later stages.
The choice of drugs is made depending on the symptoms of the attacks and the course of the disease. This is due to the fact that in some types of attacks, drugs can be effective, while in others they can cause more severe forms of the disease or serious side effects.