Head injury in a child

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Head injury in a child

The child grows and seeks to know the world. Childhood is the most dangerous period for a child. It is not uncommon for children to get head injuries.

A head injury is an injury to the head or skull. Traumatic brain injury ranks first in frequency of occurrence. It makes up 30–40% of the total number of patient visits. It is necessary to detect TBI in time, as the injury can cause irreparable harm to the health of the child.

Types of TBI in a child

1. Closed or open injury. In case of injury, the integrity of the soft tissues of the head is violated. There may be damage to the bones, a fracture of the base of the skull.

2. According to severity, they distinguish:

  • Easy degree. The injury is not accompanied by complications, often goes away without medical attention. It is characterized by irritability, sleep disturbance, headache and dizziness for a short period of time.
  • Moderate – a severe bruise that affects the brain, such as a skull fracture. Damage can seriously affect your health. Doctors note mental disorders, memory loss, disturbed heart rhythm, paroxysms of the upper and lower extremities, disorders of the visual apparatus. Recovery takes several months
  • Severe degree. It is characterized by serious consequences that affect the quality of life of the victim. There is a possibility of death and coma. It is characterized by loss of sensitivity, deterioration in visual acuity and hearing, disruption of the cardiac system, memory lapses, epileptic seizures.

3. By brain damage:

  • shake;
  • injury;
  • diffuse axonal damage;
  • squeezing.

Causes of head injury in children

Injuries to the skull and brain are often obtained due to non-health reasons:

  • the fall;
  • accident;
  • blow to the head.

There are different reasons for each age. A one-year-old child is just starting to walk, and this is not at all easy. He constantly falls, but stubbornly goes to his goal. Parents need to be especially careful and avoid head injuries. At an older age, children begin to go to kindergartens and schools. During this period, blows to the head during the game are possible. Accidents can also be accidents, which is especially dangerous for a child.

Symptoms of TBI

According to the symptoms, children can be divided into two groups:

  • up to two years, when the child still cannot speak coherently;
  • explain something .

The first group is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • cry;
  • lethargy;
  • drowsiness;
  • lack of reaction;
  • temperature rise;
  • regurgitation.

For the second group:

  • headache;
  • dizziness;
  • memory losses;
  • nausea;
  • incoherent speech;
  • swallowing disorder;
  • temperature rise.

First aid for cranial trauma

You need to call an ambulance. The health of your child depends on the speed of contacting a specialist. With late admission to the hospital department, complications may occur.

Before the ambulance arrives, you can do:

  • apply cold to the head;
  • transfer the child to a prone position;
  • unfasten clothes so that the child can breathe more freely;


In case of head injuries in a child, studies are prescribed depending on the nature of the injury.

  • EEG. Identified disorders of the brain.
  • X-ray. The integrity of the skull is revealed.
  • CT scan. With its help, the state of the brain is determined.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging. Determines brain injury.
  • ultrasound. Relevant for children up to a year.

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