Traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a Russian term that does not quite correctly reflect the essence of the phenomena. The fact is that skull injuries, types of fractures occur only with brain bruises and then in less than 50-60% of cases, and with a concussion of the brain, which accounts for 80% of all TBIs, there is no skull damage. Probably, the English-speaking authors are right when they call TBI ” head injury ” – damage to the head. Nevertheless, we in Russia have historically developed such a situation that this type of injury is characterized as a traumatic brain injury.
TBI ranks first among all injuries (40%) and occurs at all ages, but most often in working age (15-44 years).
TBI is 2 times more common among men compared to women, and mortality from TBI among men is 3 times higher than among women, which indicates a more severe nature of the injury in a strong part of humanity. The annual total damage from TBI on a national scale, according to American researchers, is up to $100 billion. In order to visually characterize the damage caused by TBI, it is enough to say that 7 hydroelectric power plants could be built with these funds. Therefore, TBI is considered not only a serious medical but also a social problem.
In a population of about 250 million people (US population), TBI occurs in 500,000 people annually (2:1000), and in large cities the frequency of its occurrence increases to 7 cases per 1000 population; 50,000 (10%) die in the prehospital stage and 450,000 are admitted to hospitals.
In other words, we see that we are talking only about witnessed trauma. If we take into account that up to 20% of people who have received mild TBI do not seek medical help, then the number of victims will increase by 100,000 people.
Of those admitted to hospital, 80% (360,000) have a mild TBI, 10% (45,000) have a moderate TBI, and 10% (45,000) have a severe injury. The overall mortality from TBI is 4-5%.
Permanent consequences in the form of disability are present in 10% of those with mild TBI, 66% after moderate trauma, and 100% with severe TBI. The total state damage due to patients with the consequences of TBI in the United States is about $ 25 billion.
In peacetime, according to the mechanism of receiving, a road injury is in the first place (driver, passengers of the passenger compartment during an accident, pedestrians hit by a car).
In second place is domestic trauma. These are accidental falls with head hitting a hard surface, head hitting a wall, etc. Domestic trauma also includes trauma due to criminal acts (attacks, beatings, fights).
The third place belongs to a work-related injury and the fourth place is given to a sports injury.