Immunoglobulin a,m,g analysis
The human immune system protects it from infections, from pathological microorganisms. Immunoglobulins are antibodies that are involved in local immunity. Immunoglobulins are produced by the body in response to the introduction of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and various foreign agents. With the help of an analysis of the level of antibodies in the blood, autoimmune diseases, allergic reactions and other pathological processes in the body are diagnosed.
Immunoglobulins are protein molecules that are produced by B-lymphocytes. Immunoglobulins can not only be found in human blood – they attach to the surfaces of damaged cells that are foreign to the body, which they recognize as foreign agents. Immune antibodies are divided into five classes – IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE. In diagnostic studies, the greatest importance is attached to immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM. During the research, their qualitative and quantitative content is determined. The first determines the presence of infection in the blood, the second study determines the level of antibodies in the patient’s blood. For each infection, there is a certain level of M and G antibodies in the blood, some infections are not accompanied by an increase in the level of immunoglobulins.
With the help of an analysis of immunoglobulins for the content of antibodies, an infectious infection is determined at the earliest stage of the disease – this allows for complete control of the disease and the effectiveness of diagnosis. Immunoglobulins are local, humoral immunity, which works later than cellular immunity. Cellular immunity (T-lymphocytes) is the first to begin to fight foreign agents. If the struggle of cellular immunity is not effective enough, the body activates humoral immunity – the production of immunoglobulins increases. The production of immunoglobulins does not always increase due to the appearance of a protein of infectious origin in the blood, in many cases other reasons contribute to this:
Rh or group incompatibility of the blood of the mother and fetus.
Immunoglobulins A (IgA) make up about 15% of blood serum protein, are involved in the protection of mucous membranes (gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urogenital mucosa), protect against pathogenic agents, toxins.
Immunoglobulins M and G
Type M immunoglobulins (IgM) are the largest antibodies of all protein molecules. They do not penetrate the placental barrier, do not affect the fetus. Antibodies of this type are found in the blood serum and make up about 10% of the total protein. Immunoglobulins M are the first to be activated when a foreign agent appears in the blood and serve as the first sign of infectious diseases, including TORCH infections.
Immunoglobulins G (IgG) make up about 75% of all antibodies in the human body. Immunoglobulins G penetrate the placental barrier, provide immunity to the newborn for several months after birth. G and M antibodies of this type belong to the secondary immune response; they are produced later than antibodies of the M type, and can be directed to any type of antigen. Studies on immunoglobulins G are carried out to diagnose hepatitis C, various infectious diseases. Antibodies G remain in the blood of a person throughout life, they serve as the body’s defense against many infections.
Type M immunoglobulins are a marker of primary infection with the herpes simplex virus, show an exacerbation or chronic course of the disease. Immunoglobulin G when infected with herpes begins to be produced later than immunoglobulin M, but remains in the patient’s blood for the rest of his life. Immunoglobulins M are an indicator of HIV infection at an early stage of the disease, provided that highly sensitive tests are used. The level of immunoglobulin M increases within a month after infection, then persists for no more than a month. Immunoglobulin G in HIV infection is in the blood for several years, it is the main indicator for the diagnosis of HIV infection.
Analysis for immunoglobulins M and G
Immunoglobulin M and G tests can accurately indicate the presence of an infectious or bacterial infection. The following clinical studies are being conducted:
linked immunosorbent assay;
RPHA – reaction of indirect hemagglutination;
RMP, microprecipitation reaction;
RIF – immunofluorescence reaction.
All studies serve for the complex detection of antibodies and antigens that caused the growth of immunoglobulins. There are other methods for diagnosing diseases using immunoglobulins.
Author: Elina Viktorovna Aranovich
Therapist, cardiologist, oncologist
An increase in immunoglobulins in the blood most often indicates the response of the immune system to an infectious infection. The analysis determines the stage of the disease and methods of its treatment. However, an increase in immunoglobulins is not always associated with an infection. The main task of doctors is to conduct a differential diagnosis of conditions and determine the cause of elevated antibody levels. The information content of the method is 80-90%.
Diagnosis of the concentration of immunoglobulins is prescribed by therapists, allergists, immunologists, oncologists and other doctors who suspect a violation of the immune system. Immunoglobulin values are informative in making various diagnoses. In this regard, the number of specialists in whose competence the appointment of this survey is increasing. Immunoglobulins are more often prescribed as part of a comprehensive diagnosis. According to the results obtained, the doctors of the Yusupov hospital select the appropriate treatment.
Analysis of immunoglobulin A, M, G to tuberculosis
Why is it better to do an analysis of immunoglobulin A, M, G for tuberculosis instead of a Mantoux test? Modern technique allows to detect the disease at an early stage of development, while its results are very accurate. Doctors recommend doing a blood test to detect tuberculosis, as it shows results with 98% certainty.
In addition, the method has a number of advantages, including:
quick receipt of test results – within 4-5 hours;
the possibility of detecting an extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis;
identification of a specific element that the pathogen has;
accuracy of diagnosis in pulmonary tuberculosis.
The Mantoux test is a primary diagnostic method. On its basis, it is impossible to make a diagnosis. The Mantoux test often gives false positive or false negative results. After a positive result, the patient needs to undergo additional tests.
The Mantoux test also has a number of contraindications:
tendency to allergic reactions;
chronic diseases, especially during periods of exacerbation;
Today it is possible to independently choose the method of examination for the presence of tuberculosis. New directions of diagnostics have replaced the usual, outdated methods. They are distinguished by a high degree of reliability and safety.
More details about each technique can be consulted with the doctors of the Yusupov hospital. They will talk about the disadvantages and advantages of each method, as well as possible contraindications. When contacting the Yusupov Hospital, you can undergo a complete examination and receive effective treatment.